Stop up and see us sometime — we’re on the third floor of Newton Hall, and we’ll be glad to tell you about how doing this work has changed our lives, and how it can change yours.
1. To benefit from the insight of others. The body of world literature contains most available knowledge about humanity – our beliefs, our self-perception, our philosophies, our assumptions and our interactions with the world at large. Some of life’s most important lessons are subtly expressed in our art. We learn these lessons only if we pause to think about what we read. Why would anyone bury important ideas? Because some ideas cannot be expressed adequately in simple language, and because the lessons we have to work for are the ones that stick with us.
2. To open our minds to ambiguities of meaning. While people will “say what they mean and mean what they say” in an ideal world, language in our world is, in reality, maddeningly and delightfully ambiguous. If you go through life expecting people to play by your rules, you’ll only be miserable, angry and disappointed. You won’t change them. Ambiguity, double entendres and nuance give our language depth and endless possibility. Learn it. Appreciate it. Revel in it.
3. To explore other cultures and beliefs. History, anthropology and religious studies provide a method of learning about the cultures and beliefs of others from the outside looking in. Literature, on the other hand, allows you to experience the cultures and beliefs of others first-hand, from the inside looking out. The only other way to have such a personal understanding of others’ beliefs are to adopt them yourself – which most of us aren’t willing to do. If you understand where other people are coming from, you are better equipped to communicate meaningfully with them – and they with you.
4. To appreciate why individuals are the way they are. Each person we meet represents a unique concoction of knowledge, beliefs, and experiences. In our own culture we find an infinite variety of attitudes and personalities, hatreds and bigotries, and assumptions. With each exposure to those who differ from us, we expand our minds. We may still reject their beliefs and assumptions, but we’re one step closer to understanding them.
5. To expand our grasp of the machinations of history. History and literature are inextricably entertwined. History is not just names and dates and politics and wars and power. History is about people who were products of their time with their own intricately-woven value systems. Study of literature enhances our appreciation of history’s complexity, which in turn expands our appreciation of present political complexities and better equips us to predict and prepare for the future.
6. To exercise our brains. Our brains need exercise just like our bodies do. Don’t balk at picking up the barbell and doing a few mental curls. Great literature has hidden meanings that won’t slap us in the face like children’s books will; we’ll have to dig and analyze like an adult to find the gold.
7. To teach us to see individual bias. In a sense, each of us is an unreliable or naive narrator, but most of us mindlessly accept the stories of certain friends or family without qualification. We should remember that they are centers of their own universes, though, just like we are. They are first-person narrators – not omniscient – just like we are. The only thing that suffers when we appreciate individual bias is our own gullibility.
8. To encourage us to question “accepted” knowledge. As children, most of us were taught to believe what we’re told and those basic hypotheses provide our schemas, or building blocks of knowledge. As we grow, we learn to question some ideas while rejecting the offensively alien ideas outright, often without real examination. However, human progress often results from the rejection of assumed “facts.” The difficulty lies in spotting our own unexamined assumptions. The more ideas we expose yourself to, the more of our own assumptions we can root out to question and either discard or ground our lives in.
9. To help us see ourselves as others do. Literature is a tool of self-examination. You will see your own personality or habits or assumptions in literature. The experience may even be painful. While our ego defense systems help us avoid self-scrutiny and ignore others’ observations or reactions to us, literature serves as a mirror, revealing us to ourselves in all our naked, undefended glory.
10. To appreciate the contributions literature has made to history. The pen is mightier than the sword, yes? When a country undergoes regime change, the new regime imprisons, exiles or executes the intelligentsia – scholars and philosophers – who are seen as the keepers of the culture, creators of ideology, and instigators of revolt.
11. To see the tragedy. Lenin said “A million deaths are a statistic, but one death is a tragedy.” History gives you the statistics. Literature shows you the human tragedy.
12. To further our mastery of language. Sticks and stones may break my bones, but words build and destroy nations. Study of literature hones our language skills and teaches us new and valuable techniques for communication. A master of language can seduce your emotions and inspire you to follow him into death – or he can crush your will with a word. Language is the single most important tool of leadership and great leaders embrace its study.
13. To recognize language devices and appreciate their emotional power. Like good music, poetry uses wordplay, rhythm, and sounds to lull the reader into an emotional fog, and therein deliver its message. Great leaders learn to harness these techniques of communication and persuasion. Listen closely to effective advertisements and politicians and lawyers. Listen to the pleasing rhythm and wordplay of their mantras, and watch the sheep blithely flock to them.
14. To explore ethical complexities. Only children find ethical rules cut and dried. Literature forces readers to challenge their simplistic ethical conceptions and sometimes their outright condemnation of others’ actions. For example, we believe lying is wrong. But what do we mean? Do we never lie? Have you ever met a person rude enough to follow this rule implicitly? Be advised, though: ethical exploration is a mature endeavor; it is not for the thin-skinned.
15. To see the admirable in everyday life. We are surrounded by unsung nobility and sacrifice. Once we learn to see it in the actions of common folk, our lives will be forever richer, as will our faith in humanity itself.
16. To learn better ways to behave. An untold amount of our opinions and words and reactions are absorbed during childhood and from our culture. Literature teaches us better courses of action and more effective responses to situations … if we let it.
17. To know we aren’t alone. Others have been where we are, have felt as we feel, have believed as we believe. Paradoxically, we are unique just like everyone else. But we aren’t alone. Others were here and they survived … and may have even learned from it – and so may we.
18. To refine our judgment. This involves several aspects of reading: exposure to new ideas and new ways of looking at old assumptions, expanded vocabulary and understanding, and improved ability to write. Altogether, these benefits refine our ability to think, and thus guide us toward informed, mature judgment.
19. To learn to support our points of view and trust our own interpretations. We provide evidence for our interpretation of a story or poem when we explicate it. When we build a solid case in support of our opinion, we build self-confidence in our own interpretations of language itself.
20. To develop empathy for those who are unlike us. Literature can train and exercise our ability to weep for those who are not us or ours. As children, our circles of concern stop with ourselves. As we grow, we expand those circles to our families and friends, and perhaps to our neighborhoods, towns, cities, states or countries. Our study of literature continues to expand that realm of concern beyond the things we physically experience.
21. To expand our vocabularies. New words are tools for grasping new ideas. Each new idea is a building block upon which we may acquire more knowledge. Knowledge is power.
What do we believe and why do we believe it? Who are we and why are we here? What ought we do and why should we do it? Philosophy encourages critical and systematic inquiry into fundamental questions of right and wrong, truth and falsehood, the meaning of life, and the nature of reality, knowledge and society. More than any other discipline, philosophy explores the core issues of the Western intellectual tradition. Philosophy encourages the student to formulate questions and follow arguments.
Philosophy provides an excellent preparation for law school and other professional programs and is a solid foundation for a career in business, teaching, writing, or public service.
What skills does studying philosophy develop?
- Generate ideas on a variety of problems
- Formulate and solve problems
- Uncover assumptions and suggest alternatives
- Ability to distinguish subtle differences without overlooking similarities
- Analyze, develop and formulate logical arguments
- Capability to make knowledgeable decisions, examining thoroughly the consequences of various actions
- Aptitude to examine various angles of topics
- Ability to write and speak clearly and effectively
- Interpret and assess various thoughts and theories
Philosophy is the ultimate “transferable work skill.” With its emphasis on reason and argumentation, philosophy is an excellent preparation for a career in law, religion, business, international diplomacy, social work, medical management or writing as well as post-graduate education. Philosophy majors successfully work as or in, but are not limited to:
- Public relations directora
- Retail management
- Social workers
- Labor relations
- Foreign service officers
- Public policy
- Nonprofit work
So what can you do with a philosophy degree? You can become …
- President of Morgan Stanley (Robert Greenhill)
- Founder and Manager of a Hedge-fund (Don Brownstein)
- Investor (George Soros)
- CEO of Overstock.com (Patrick Byrne)
- Supreme Court Justice (Stephen Breyer AND David Souter)
- Mayor of Los Angeles (Richard Riordan)
- U.S. Secretary of Education (William Bennett)
- Prime Minister of Canada (Paul Martin, Jr.)
- Network Television Journalist (Stone Phillips)
- Pulitzer-Prize Winning Author (Studs Terkel)
- Host of an Iconic Game Show (Alex Trebek)
- Cofounder of Wikipedia (Larry Sanger)
- Comedian/Actor/Producer (Ricky Gervais)
- Academy-Award Winning Filmmaker (Ethan Coen)
- Four-star General in the US Army (Jack Keane)
- Fighter in the French Resistance in WWII (Stephane Hessel)
- Co-author of the UN’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights (P.C. Chang AND Charles Malik)
- Martyr to German Opposition to Nazism in WWII (Sophie Scholl)
- Pope (John Paul II AND Benedict XVI)
- Seminal Anthropologist (Claude Levi-Strauss)